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2018년 12월 10일 15시 45분 KST | 업데이트됨 2018년 12월 10일 17시 13분 KST

[화보] 브렉시트 '운명의 날'을 앞두고 영국에서 찬반 시위가 열렸다

영국의 현재 상황.

Chris J Ratcliffe via Getty Images

영국의 유럽연합(EU) 탈퇴에 있어 중대한 분수령이 될 한 주를 앞두고 일요일(9일) 오후 영국 런던 도심에서 찬반 양측의 시위가 열렸다. 

이날 시위를 촉발한 건 극우 포퓰리즘 정당에서 최근 반(反)이슬람 정당으로 거듭나고 있는 영국독립당(UKIP)이었다. 이들은 테레사 메이 총리가 가져온 브렉시트 협상안이 ‘굴욕적‘이자 ‘매국적‘이라고 본다. EU와의 모든 관계를 청산하고 완전히 결별하는 ‘하드 브렉시트(hard Brexit)’가 아니라는 이유에서다.

UKIP의 지도자와 지지자들은 메이 총리를 ”반역자”로 묘사하는 구호를 외쳤다. 영국 깃발이 넘실대는 인파 속에 있던 한 참가자는 직접 제작했다는 거대한 교수대를 선보였고, 도널드 트럼프 미국 대통령의 슬로건 ‘미국을 다시 위대하게(Make America Great Again)‘를 차용한 ‘영국을 다시 위대하게’ 구호도 등장했다.

″모든 영국 언론은 친(EU) 잔류파다.” 한 참가자는 피켓에 이렇게 적었다. ”나는 탈퇴에 투표했다”나 ”민주주의” 등도 흔히 볼 수 있는 문구 중 하나였다. 메이 총리가 ‘EU에 한쪽 발을 걸치는’ 브렉시트를 밀어붙이며 국민투표로 표출됐던 민심을 배반하고 있다는 논리다. 이날 집회 제목도 ‘브렉시트 배반(Brexit Betrayal)’이었다. 

Gareth Fuller - PA Images via Getty Images

 

반대쪽에는 노동당 지지자들과 반(反)인종주의 운동가들이 있었다. 이들은 반대편 시위대를 향해 한 목소리로, 한 사람을 규탄했다. 이들이 지목한 공공의 적은 바로 올해 36세인 토미 로빈슨이다. 영국 극우단체 ‘영국수호동맹(EDL)’을 이끌던 그는 최근 UKIP 대표 제라드 배튼에 의해 당대표 특별 정치고문으로 영입됐다.

그의 영입은 하나의 사건으로 받아들여졌다. 변방에 머물렀던 극우 인물이 제도권 정당에 진출한 것이기 때문이다. 영국 보수당보다 더 오른쪽인 UKIP은 반(反)EU, 반(反)이민 등을 주장하는 국가주의 정당이다. 브렉시트 국민투표 당시 탈퇴 운동을 주도했다. 그러나 극우정당이라기보다는 포퓰리스트 우파 정당에 가까웠다. 

그랬던 UKIP은 브렉시트 이후 지지율이 추락하며 존재 기반이 흔들렸다. 새 지도부의 선택은 반(反)이슬람 극우정당으로의 전환이었다. 2015년 총선에서 영국에서 세 번째로 많은 표를 얻은 정당이자 영국 상원과 하원, 지방의회, 유럽연합 의회에도 당선자를 꾸준히 배출해 왔던 제도권 정당이 로빈슨을 영입한 배경이다.

Reuters

 

‘맞불집회’ 참석자들은 ”토미 로빈슨에 맞서자. 이 인종주의자가 우리를 분열시키도록 하지 말자”, ”인종주의에 반대한다. 파시즘에 반대한다” 같은 구호를 외쳤다. 로빈슨을 ”파시스트”나 ”나치”에 비교하는 피켓도 눈에 띄었다. 집회 주최 측은 UKIP 집회 참가자보다 두 배 넘는 인파가 맞불집회에 참여했다고 밝혔다

노동당 풀뿌리운동 단체 ‘모멘텀’의 로라 파커는 “2018년에 영국 거리에서 파시스트들이 활보하지 못하도록 할 것”이라고 목소리를 높였다. 반(反)인종주의 단체 ‘Stand Up to Racism’의 웨이먼 베넷은 UKIP이 비주류 극우 단체들과 결합하고 있다며 ”모든 도시에서” 이런 시위를 조직하는 게 ”긴급한 과제”라고 말했다. 

이들은 UKIP이 궁핍해진 시민들의 불만을 이용하고 있다고 지적한다. 제조업 일자리가 줄어들고, 공공지출이 대폭 삭감된 이유를 이민자들의 탓으로 돌리고 있다는 것. 브렉시트가 반(反)이슬람 인종주의와 만나는 지점이다. 이는 유럽 전역에서 나타나는 극우 포퓰리즘의 전형적 작동방식과도 같다.

이런 가운데 영국 하원은 11일 메이 총리의 브렉시트 협상안에 대한 인준 표결을 진행할 예정이다. 현재까지의 집계로는 부결 가능성이 매우 높은 상황이다. 그렇게 되면 브렉시트와 메이 총리의 미래가 불투명해지는 것은 물론, 영국 정치권은 그 누구도 장담할 수 없는 혼돈으로 빠져들게 될 전망이다.

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  • ASSOCIATED PRESS
    Demonstrators hold placards and flags at the "Brexit Betrayal Rally", a pro-Brexit rally, in London, Sunday Dec. 9, 2018. MP's are to vote on the EU withdrawal agreement on upcoming Tuesday. (AP Photo/Tim Ireland)
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  • Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
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    LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - DECEMBER 9: Pro-Brexit protesters take part in a march organized by UKIP and far right activist Tommy Robinson in central London, United Kingdom, on December 9, 2018. The demonstration took place before British parliament makes the crucial vote on Theresa May's Brexit deal with the European Union next tuesday. (Photo by Tayfun Salci/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
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    LONDON, ENGLAND - DECEMBER 09: People take part in a UKIP-backed Brexit betrayal rally on December 09, 2018 in London, England. The demonstration takes place three days before parliament is due to make the crucial vote on Theresa May's Brexit deal with the European Union. (Photo by Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images)
  • Dylan Martinez / Reuters
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  • Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
    LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - DECEMBER 9: Pro-Brexit protesters take part in a march organized by UKIP and far right activist Tommy Robinson in central London, United Kingdom, on December 9, 2018. The demonstration took place before British parliament makes the crucial vote on Theresa May's Brexit deal with the European Union next tuesday. (Photo by Tayfun Salci/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
  • Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
    LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - DECEMBER 9: Pro-Brexit protesters take part in a march organized by UKIP and far right activist Tommy Robinson in central London, United Kingdom, on December 9, 2018. The demonstration took place before British parliament makes the crucial vote on Theresa May's Brexit deal with the European Union next tuesday. (Photo by Tayfun Salci/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
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    LONDON, ENGLAND - DECEMBER 09: People holding placards opposing Tommy Robinson take part in a separate protest ahead of a UKIP-backed Brexit betrayal rally on December 9, 2018 in London, England. The demonstration takes place three days before parliament is due to make the crucial vote on Theresa May's Brexit deal with the European Union. (Photo by Dan Kitwood/Getty Images)
  • NurPhoto via Getty Images
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  • Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
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  • Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
    LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - DECEMBER 9: Anti fascist protesters march in central London during a simultaneous UKIP led Brexit protest in which the far right activist Tommy Robinson took part, December 9, 2018 in London, United Kingdom. The demonstrations took place before british parliament makes the crucial vote on Theresa May's Brexit deal with the European Union next tuesday. (Photo by Tayfun Salci/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
  • NurPhoto via Getty Images
    Demonstrators gather for the Oppose Tommy Robinson, unite against racism & fascism counter demonstration organised for anti-fascist groups opposed to far right politics, regardless of their positions on leave/remain on Brexit on 9th December 2018 in London, United Kingdom. (Photo by Gail Orenstein/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
  • NurPhoto via Getty Images
    Demonstrators gather for the Oppose Tommy Robinson, unite against racism & fascism counter demonstration organised for anti-fascist groups opposed to far right politics, regardless of their positions on leave/remain on Brexit on 9th December 2018 in London, United Kingdom. (Photo by Gail Orenstein/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
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